Rare partial trisomy and tetrasomy of 15q11-q13 associated with developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder
Lu Y, Liang Y, Ning S, Deng G, Xie Y, Song J, Zuo N, Feng C, Qin Y
Abstract Background : Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs), are additional abnormal chromosomes, which can’t be detected accurately by banding cytogenetic analysis. Abnormal phenotypes were observed in about 30% of SMC carriers. Duplication of chromosome 15 and related disorders, characterized by hypotonia motor delays, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, and epilepsy including infantile spasms, might be account for 50% of the total sSMCs. Case presentation : An 11-month-old infant with an sSMC fond by banding cytogenetics was referred to our clinic because of developmental retardation and autism spectrum disorder. After several months of rehabilitation treatment, the progress of motor development was obvious, but the consciousness was still far from satisfied. High-resolution karyotype analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and copy number variation sequencing (CNV-Seq) were conducted to confirm the identity of the sSMC. A bisatellited dicentric sSMC was observed clearly in high-resolution karyotype analysis and a 10.16-Mb duplication of 15q11.1q13.2 (3.96 copies) together with a 1.84-Mb duplication of 15q13.2q13.3 (3 copies) was showed by CNV-Seq in the proband. It suggested that the molecular cytogenetic karyotype was 47,XY,+dic(15;15)(q13.2;q13.3). Furthermore, the clinical symptoms of the proband mostly fit 15q duplication related disorders which are characterized by hypotonia motor delays, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and intellectual disability.
Conclusion: We reported for the first time using CNV-Seq to detect sSMCs and find a partial trisomy and tetrasomy of 15q11-q13 associated with developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder. Our report indicates that CNV-seq is a useful and economical way for diagnosis of dup15q and related disorders.